What do many of us do when we execute a search warrant of a residence or place? I suspect that many will say, “Leave a copy of the warrant at the place, or at least show or give the affected party a copy.” If that is your response, you would be correct; and don’t just take my word for it.
R. v. Boekdrukker 2018 ONSC 266 – police executed a search warrant at the accused’s home after she sold cocaine to an undercover officer. Following one buy, and before a second successful buy in which the accused was arrested, police applied for and were granted the search warrant, which they brought to the place to be searched before actually executing it. One of the officers had the warrant in his car, but didn’t bother to bring the warrant into the residence with him during the search, nor did police leave a copy of the search warrant in the residence after they finished the search and left. To compound this, police did not show Ms. Boekdrukker the search warrant when she asked to see it upon her arrest at the residence. To remind all of us, s. 29(1) of the Criminal Code states:
It is the duty of every one who executes a process or warrant to have it with him, where it is feasible to do so, and to produce it when requested to do so.
In the judge’s opinion, the common law mandates that police officers leave a copy of the search warrant in an unoccupied place or premise that they have searched. In addition, s. 29(1) CC was not complied with because it was feasible for the police to show Ms. Boekdrukker the search warrant. She asked to see it. She was under arrest, cooperative, and compliant. There was no urgency in removing her from the scene. In fact, she was not removed immediately. The search warrant was in the officer’s car and could have been readily retrieved, said the judge.
As another note, in this case, there was a violation of s. 10(b) of the Charter due to the unreasonable delay in facilitating the accused’s contact with counsel (it took nearly 4 hours from the time she expressed her desire to speak to a lawyer and almost 3.5 hours from her arrival at the police station to speak to duty counsel). The reasoning relied upon the line of authority that has permitted the police to delay the s. 10(b) implementation duties when the police are in the process of obtaining and executing a search warrant, where there are legitimate concerns for an officer or public safety and/or for the loss or destruction of evidence, which may prove to be exigent circumstances that justify a temporary suspension of Charter rights. These cases often involve the potential for violence or firearms as well.
No such concerns arose in this case. The police already had the search warrant in their possession before they arrested Ms. Boekdrukker. Ms. Boekdrukker was told they were going to search her unit. The police then quickly entered and secured the unit even before Ms. Boekdrukker was taken back to the police station. There was no one in the unit that the police searched. There were no other factual circumstances that raised any safety or investigative concerns once the unit was secured. While some of the officers testified to general concerns in executing search warrants to avoid a loss of evidence, none of the officers acknowledged this was a motivating concern here in terms of the failure to facilitate access to counsel. According to the judge, even if the police properly delayed access to counsel in order not to compromise the search, there was no reason why access to counsel was delayed beyond the time when police gained access to the unit and found it unoccupied.
The evidence seized during the search of the residence was excluded and the accused was acquitted on those charges. Luckily, the charges stemming from the sale to the undercover officer stood and the accused was convicted of trafficking and possession of the proceeds of crime.